11 Fancy weaves

B. A. Muralidhar

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  1. Introduction

Fancy weaves differ from the basic weaves in design, pattern and texture. The manufactures of fancy weaves are comparatively costlier than the regular basic weaves. Fancy weaves are constructed by changing the interlacing patterns of the weaves, as such special attachments looms and control devices are necessary to produce these fabrics competitively.

  1. Fancy Twill

2.1 Large Diagonals


This fancy weave is constructed by combining two or more small regular twills to form large diagonals. As such these large twills require more number of heald shafts for its manufacture. The chief points to be considered while constructing large diagonals are:

  • To suitable join the small twills
  • To select twill weaves that are sufficiently different from each other and
  • To give each twill weave sufficient space to give the large twill a distinct appearance.

The construction of large diagonals is illustrated at Figure 1.1 this figure is developed using a 3 up 1 down and 1 down 3 up twill weaves. The entire weave repeats on 22 ends and 22 picks.

Figure 1.3 figured twill weave

  1. Diamonds:

Diamond designs are regarded as an extension of twill weaves. These weaves are symmetrical about their vertical and horizontal axes and can be constructed economically with the aid of the point draft. True diamond weaves converge into a vertex and can be developed by either


(1) Indicating a diamond base and building up the design symmetrically (or)

(2) By employing a vertical waved twill or zig-zag lifting plan along with the draft.


In this module, the second method of constructing the diamond weave is discussed. Figure 1.4 illustrates the basic 1/3 twill at A and at same twill arranged zig-zag vertically and horizontally at B and C respectively. If B is taken as a draft with C as the lifting plan, diamond design D will result as illustrated below. The full repeat of the weave repeats in 12 ends and 12 picks.

Figure 1.5 Diaper weave

  1. 1 Mock leno

Mock leno weaves as the name imply produces effects similar to leno (or) gauze weaves produce using doup healds.


Two kinds of structure are generally produced;


(1) The first referred to as perforated fabrics, which produce imitation open gauze effects and

(2) The second referred to as distorted thread effect, which produces effects similar to imitation net leno style.


The perforated fabric mock leno weave, producing imitating gauze effect is illustrated in Figure 2.1. The weave is constructed by reversing a small unit, (in this case a 3 x 3 unit). The weave repeats on 6 ends and 6 picks.

Figure 2.1 Mock leno weave

2.2 Distorted thread effects


In this weave the threads of either the warp (or) weft (or) both warp and weft may be arranged to distort certain threads to produce an imitation gauze weave effect. One method is illustrated in Figure 2.2 where the ground structure is plain weave, and the distorted fourth and eleventh ends float over the plain picks but pass under the fourth and eleventh picks. Whereas the distorted fourth and eleventh picks float over one group of plain ends and under the next group in alternate order. The distorted ends take-up is more rapid compared to ground threads as such are separately beamed. The distorted weave below is represented on 28 ends and 14 picks.

Figure 2.2 distorted thread effect

  1. Huckaback

The structure of typical huckaback weave consists of plain weave and intermittent loose floats. The firmness and hard wearing qualities of the weave are attributed to plain structure whereas the loose floats aids good moisture pick-up. The six pick Devon huckaback weave repeating on 10 ends and 6 picks is illustrated in figure 3.1

Figure 3.1 Devon huckaback weaves


4. Crepe weave


Crepe weaves are those weaves that do not contain any prominent twill line (or) any other effects. A crepe woven fabric gives a typical granular (or) minute spot/seeds effect, to touch.

Figure 4.1 Crepe weave constructed on 8 thread sateen weave (x) Sateen base (o) marks added to sateen base.

  1. Honey comb

A honey comb structure produces cell like appearance on textiles. The floating threads and the tightly woven threads form ridges and hollow spaces, both the warp and weft threads float freely on both sides, this type of weaves are best suited for towelling materials.


Honeycombs are of two classes


(1) Ordinary honey combs – are honey comb weaves that produce same weave effect on both sides of the cloth and in most cases produced using a pointed draft.

(2) Brighton honey combs – are honey comb weaves which forms the cellular effect on only one side of the cloth and require a straight draft to be constructed.


5.1 Ordinary honey comb weave:


The construction of ordinary honey comb on 8 threads is illustrated in figure 5.1 (A) and (B). First the diagonal marks from left to right are introduced, then from right to left as shown in (A). Afterwards, one of the diamond spaces is filled up and the other left blank as shown in (B). The weave repeats on eight ends and picks.

Figure 5.1 Ordinary honey comb weave


5.2 Brighton honey comb


Brighton honey comb weave usually repeat on threads in multiple of four. The construction of a 16 thread Brighton honey comb is depicted in figure 5.2. first the diagonal marks are introduced from left to right, then from right to left double row of marks are introduced as shown in (A) there by creating a diamond base. Marks are then added to the double row to form small warp diamonds in the right and left corners of each diamond space as shown in (B). The float length of the central thread in each small spot is one thread less than half the number of threads in the full repeat i.e (16/2 = 8 -1 = 7 threads)

  1. Bed ford cord weave


This class of fancy weave produces prominent longitudinal warp lines with fine sunken lines in between. The method of constructing ordinary Bedford chord weave is illustrated in figure 6.1. (A) to (C) the full weave repeating on 12 ends and 4 picks.

As depicted in figure (A) first the plain weave marks are introduced on a pair of warp ends at intervals. The numbers of ends between the pair of plain ends are varied depending on the width of the chord required. In the next figure 6.1 (B), marks are introduced on the 1st and 2nd, 3rd and 4th pick in an alternate order as shown. Then the design is completed by introducing the plain marks as shown a (C).

  1. Pique weaves

Pique is a French word meaning quilted. This weave produces a fabric with ridges, called cords. The pique structure consists of plain fabric composed of one series of warp and weft threads, with stitching ends placed on a separate beam. At frequent the tight stitching ends are interwoven into the plain face weaves intervals to form indentations.


Pique structures forming continuous indentations (or) sunken lines in the horizontal direction of the cloth are termed as “welts”. The construction of the ordinary welt structure is illustrated in Figure 7.1 (A) & (B). The first stage of the weave repeating on six ends and six picks is represents in (A) the plain marks on the face fabric are indicated with (x) marks, and the stitching ends are shown in grey colour. The warp threads are arranged in the order of 2 face to 1 stitching and the complete design indicated at (B), the solid marks on stitching ends indicate the lifts of the tight stitching ends into the plain face for two consecutive picks. In this design there are four pick between the indentations along the length of the weave.

Figure 7.1 Pique weave




In this module on fancy weaves we have covered a few of the most popular weaves produced commercially. We have covered the large diagonals, shaded and figured twill weaves which are developed by altering the arrangements of the small basic twill weave. This was followed by the diamond and diaper weaves which are the extensions of basic twill weaves. Further, the construction of Mock leno, Huch-a-back, Crepe, Honey comb, Bed ford Chord and Pique weaves have been discussed in this module

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  1. Grosicki Z.  J.  2004.  Watson’s  Textile  Design,  Woodhead  Publishing  Limited, Cambridge England.


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