38 Apparel quality analysis – common defects in spreading, cutting, bundling, sewing, pressing and finishing, quality control in apparel production

V.Ramesh Babu

epgp books




  1. Quality in Spreading

Various factors that can affect spreading should be checked, such as ply alignment, ply tension or slackness, bowing, and splicing.


Here are possible spreading defects

  • Not enough plies to cover the quantity of garments required.
  • Narrow fabric.
  • Plies not all facing in the correct direction. That is, not all the plies are spread face down, face up, or face to face, as required.
  • Mismatching of checks. Plies not spread accurately one above another ready for cutting.
  1. Pattern parts missing. Correct number of parts for all sizes not included by the marker maker.
  2. Mixed parts. Parts not correctly labelled in marker; therefore, a marriage of wrong-sized parts.
  3. Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics.
  4. Patterns not all facing in the same direction (either way) on a one way fabric.
  5. Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. As a result, a garment may not drape or fit properly.
  6. Line definitions poor (e.g., chalk, too thick, indistinctly printed line, perforated lay not fully powdered), leading to inaccurate cutting.
  7. Skimpy marking. Either the marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern or the pattern was moved or swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space in the interest of fabric economy. Alternatively, the pattern is worn around the edges and should be replaced.
  8. Generous marking. A combination of points 7 and 8 results in components being sewn together with puckering or pleating.
  9. Marker too wide. Garment parts at the edge of the lay are cut with bits missing,
  10. Not enough knife clearance freedom.
  11. Mismatched checks and stripes.
  12. Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct, or misplaced

2. Quality in Cutting


Cutting quality is a prerequisite for quality in a finished product. In addition, cut work quality affects the ease and cost with which construction is accomplished. The quality of work leaving the cutting room is determined by how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern; how smooth or rough the cut surface is; material or fabric defects in the cut fabric parts; shade differences between cut fabric pieces within a bundle.


Here are some defects that may arise in cutting

  1. Frayed edges. May impede cutting time by clogging the knife action and/or mar the fabric with rips or pulled yarns. The amount of fraying depends on fabric construction and finish.Improper cutting tools or dull knives cause excessive fraying in a pattern as the section is cut.
  2. Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges. The result of poor cutting implements. Such edges will impede sewing and/or diminish sewing quality. Such a condition is caused by faulty knife edges such as burrs, chips, or dullness.
  3. Ply-to-ply fusion. More common and troublesome. Adjacent plies in a block are fused together, which makes it difficult for the sewing machine operator to pick up a single ply quickly. Fusion occurs due to heat created by excessively high speed of cutting or by the friction of a dull knife. To prevent fusion, check knife speed, keep knives sharp, place wax paper between fabric plies, and lubricate cutting blade.
  4. Single-edge fusion. Consists of a single ply whose cut yarn-ends are, fused to form a hard brittle rim on the cut edge. Sometimes, this is desirable to prevent fraying; however, hardness and brittleness are undesirable if they impede sewing manipulation or may result in seams uncomfortable to the consumer.
  5. Patte rn precision. Misshape or distortion of the pattern perimeter as cut. Whether it is under or overcut is due to the poor manual control of the, cutting machine and poor lines on the marker. To assure precision in a pattern, check markers before cutting, use tensionless spreading, or allow time for the fabric to relax. After a cut, check the top, bottom, and middle plies against the pattern.
  6. Notches. Notch size refers to the depth of a notch. If the depth is too great, the notch may show after a garment is sewn. If the notches are too small sewing operators may have difficulty locating them quickly, resulting in decreased efficiency. Misplacement of a notch may be due to an improper spread marker, poor control of a cutting machine with the cutter’s notching tool stroking diagonally instead of vertically, incorre ct marker in that the notches formatting parts do not coincide. Check notch placement against mating pieces. Quality control in stitching may be a problem if notches are not aligned.
  7. Drilling. The drill hole may be too large or too small in diameter. In addition, a drill may become too hot due to high speed or wrong size, causing the plies to fuse together at the drill hole. The drill must stroke vertically to the table for uniform placement throughout the bundle. Sometimes fabric properties are such that the slight movement of yarns in a fabric would close a drill hole. In such cases, it is necessary to drill holes with a marking fluid. The drill used for such a purpose is hollow and carries marking fluid (ink) that is deposited at the drill point on the fabric as the needle is withdrawn. Such marks should last long enough so that further processing can be finished without difficulty but should be easily removable after processing or in case of an error.

3. Sewing defects:

  1. Needle damage as evidenced by holes, picked threads, ruptured threads or other damage to the fabric; caused by wrong size or type of needle, blunt needle, needle heat, or machine feeding difficulty.
  2. Feed damage, particularly on thicker or sheer fabrics, or when machining over transverse seams, from incorrect type of teeth, excessive pressure by foot, improper alignment of feed and foot, damaged throat plate, excessive machine speed.
  3. Skipped stitches, from the hook irregularly failing to pick up the loop of thread from a needle’s eye owing to a number of causes.
  4. Thread brakes, arising from too thick a thread for the needle, too thin a thread, needle heat, operator working unrhythmically, or too tight tensions.
  5. Broken stitches, arising from the wrong stitch type, too tight tensions, a badly formed joint in the seam where the second line of stitch runs over the first and cracks it, sharp feeds, and too great a pressure.
  6. Seam grin, arising from too loose a tension or too large a stitch, or the use of the wrong stitch type.
  7. Seam pucker, because of incorrect handling by the operator, misaligned notches, or tight thread tensions.
  8. Pleated seams, an extreme form of 7, where operator failed to ease in fullness evenly.
  9. Wrong stitch density. Too many give rise to jamming and rupture of fabric threads; too few to grinning or weak seams.
  10. Uneven stitch density Operator causes machine to snatch and does not allow machine to control fabric.
  11. Staggered stitch, from faulty feed motion, incorrect needle, and other machine parts.
  12. Improperly formed stitches, caused by bad tension, incorrectly adjusted timing, ill- fitting machine components.
  13. Oil spots or stains.

Seaming Defects (usually caused by errors arising from the interaction of the operator and machine in the handling of the garment):

  1. Incorrect or uneven width of inlay, arising from bad handling by operator, incorrectly set guide, incorrectly adjusted folder. In extreme cases, the seams burst open, raw edges show, slippage of weave threads occurs, or notches are exposed.
  2. Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line (sometimes called runoffs) in top stitching, arising from lack of or badly set guide, not following a mark, or incorrect handling.
  3. Insecure back stitching, because subsequent rows do not cover the first row of stitching.
  4. Twisted seam leading to irregular puckering or the garment parts not hanging correctly when worn; caused by improper alignment of fabric parts, mismatched notches, and allowing one ply to creep against another.
  5. Mismatched checks or stripes.
  6. Mismatched seam, where transverse seams do not match (e.g., inside lea seams at the fork of trousers).
  7. Extraneous part caught in seam unrelated piece showing through the seam.
  8. Reversed garment part, where part is sewn with face side opposite from specification perhaps when the part cut for one side of garment is sewn in the other, or when the whole garment is assembled inside out.
  9. Blind stitching showing on the face side, or not securely caught on inside arising from improperly adjusted bender.
  10. Wrong seam or stitch type used.
  11. Wrong shade of thread used.

Assembly Defects (perhaps caused by errors arising in marking and cutting, as well as sewing operations in the sewing room, or a combination of these):

  1. Finished components not correct to size or shape or not symmetrical.
  2. Finished garment not to size, arising from incorrect patterns, inaccurate marking or cutting, shrinking or stretching fabric, incorrect seam widths.
  3. Parts, components, closures, or features omitted, caused by bad work flow, and wrongly printed work tickets, parts omitted in cutting, careless operator.
  4. Components or f eatures wrongly positioned or misaligned arising from incorrect marking, or sewing not following the mark (e.g., pockets, bartacks, top stitching, buttonholes, buttons, hooks and bars, hooks and eyes, zips).
  5. Interlining incorrectly positioned, twisted, too full, too tight, cockling.
  6. Lining too full, too tight, showing below the bottom of the garment, twisted, incorrectly pleated and so on.
  7. Garment parts cockling, pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness; for example, collar in relation to the under collar or the neck, sleeve in relation to the armhole, pockets, tapes, zips, pads in relation to the shoulder.
  8. Garment parts shaded owing to being mixed after cutting.
  9. Parts in one-way fabrics in wrong direction, usually only small parts, such as pockets.
  10. Mismatched trimming.

Here is a listing of some quality/workmanship standards in general (Courtesy: The William Carter Company). A company may come up with its own standards.


Open seams: No open or raw seams allowed except on hems where up to 5/8″ allowed.


Skipped stitches: No skips allowed on chain stitch or ravelling stitch unless skip will be covered by a subsequent operation. Two or fewer skips allowed on lock stitch provided skips are non-consecutive. More than two skips are allowed on lock stitch provided seam will be covered by subsequent operation. Skips on decorative topstitching allowed on non-ravelling seams if not obvious on the face of the garment.


Cracked stitches: All seams must withstand stress reasonably expected in wearing without breaking stitches.


Stitches/Inch: All operations must meet SPI (stitches per inch) requirement designated in the product specification and/or standard speed and stitch chart.


Uneven seams: Leg, sleeve cuff, or other seams designed to meet evenly must match by 3/8″ or less. Front opening panels must be no more than 1/4″ from meeting evenly. Intermediate operations may have larger tolerances provided measurement, appearance, or subsequent operations are not affected by failing to meet evenly ± tolerance.


Crooked, Puckered, Curled, Pleated seams: Finished garment appearance or serviceability must not be adversely affected.


Needle and Feed cuts: No feed cuts allowed unless cut will be cut off or completely covered by a subsequent operation. One needle cut allowed provided no hole or run develops when subjected to normal wearing stress. Two or more allowed if meets run or hole criteria and only one needle cut appears in finished seam. (Exception: Holes by gripper or embroidery).


Unclipped threads and Long ends:On intermediate operations (i.e. those operations which will be seamed over or covered by a subsequent operation) threads will be specified on In-Process Quality Specifications for that operation.

  •  Automatic operations such as buttonhole or batrack, 3/8″ allowed unless thread contrast with garment and creates poor appearance.
  •  Finished seams 3/8″ allowable if texturized polyester thread is used.
  •  Otherwise none allowed on outside if contrasting and visible to the consumer. Allowed on outside if matching thread is used and tail is less than 1/4 “.

Raw edge, untrimme d: No raw edge allowed on outside finished seams. No raw edge inside wider than 1/4″.


Turn ends: Defect on finished seam if appearance or secureness is affected.


Labels: Defect if crooked, missing, incorrect, insecurely attached, or seriously puckered. Stitching not to cover logo in any manner.


Snaps, Fasteners: Missing, loose or misaligned. Stud must match socket within 1/4″.Greater tolerance allowed only if appearance is not seriously affected.


Buttons: Loose, damaged, missing, or misaligned to button hole ± 3/8″. Button must easily button through buttonholes.


Elastic: Exposed: No more than three needle cut elastomers allowed.


Measure ments: Must not exceed tolerance specified on individual. In -process specifications. (Allowance must be made for seam off and stitch margins on subsequent operations).


Mends or Repairs: Defective if mend or repair will adversely affect garment appearance or fit. Lock stitch repair must overlap a minimum of three stitches starting and finishing. Obvious double stitching on exposed seams not allowed. Lock stitch repair on chain stitch allowed provided stitch lines and SPI coincide and purpose of chain stitch is not affected (i.e. stretch).


Stripe: On stripe matched seams, stripes must match ±1/4″.


Hems: Defective if excessively curled, puckered, pleated, or excessive bite.


Pockets, Motifs,  Heat seal,  Appliques,  Embroidery,  Sublistatic  print,  Screen print, Zippers, Collars: Poorly attached, position incorrect, incomplete, zipper inoperative.


3.1 Quality parameters for assessing sewability


The quality of seam depends on its strength, elasticity, durability. Stability and appearance. These characteristics can be measured by seam parameters such as seam strength, seam slippage, seam pucker, seam appearance and seam damage- Each of these parameters is influenced by various material and machine variables and they can be quantitatively measured.


Seam strength


The strength of the seam or stitching should equal that of the material it Joins in order to have a balanced construction that will withstand the forces encountered in the use of item of which seam is a part. The principal elements affecting the seam strength are: stitch type, stitch density, thread strength and thread tension.


If one examines critically the mechanism of seam LWL it will be observed that seam failure in a garment can occur because of:

  • The failure of the sewing threads, leaving the fabric intact.
  •  fabric rupture leaving seam intact,
  •  Both fabric and seam breaking at the same time.

The durability of a seam depends largely on its strength and the elasticity of the material and it is expressed in terms of seam efficiency:


It generally ranges between 85% and 90%. Seam efficiency has been found to depend on strength count and ply of sewing thread, it also correlates well with the toughness index of sewing thread. The thread loop strength has been found to relate well with the measured strength of seam in which thread breakage occurs.


The extent of abrasion damage suffered by a thread in its passage through the machine into the seam depends on:

  •  The smoothness of the parts of the sewing machine with which the thread comes into contact.
  •  The surface frictional properties of the thread and the type of dressing present.
  •  The shape and type of needle.
  • The type of fabric in respect of thread density, hardness of yams, number of plies to be sewn, etc.,
  • The number of passages of the thread through the needle eye and the fabric before it becomes incorporated into the seam.

Value$ quoted for the loss in strength due to abrasion in the sewing machine are, 25% and 15% for the upper and lower threads respectively and 15% average for threads used in single and double thread chain stitch machines. The fabric properties, not only cause seam failure by fabric rupture, but also affect the sewing thread abrasion, needle heating and fabric yam rupture/displacement during the sewing operation. The frequency of interlacing of yams in a fabric, and the number of warp and weft threads per unit length will affect the ease with which the seam opens or fails. The failure of a seam is also directly affected by sewing thread strength, which diminishes with the increase in the count of yams in fabric or increase of fabric layers to be sewn.


During sewing, the thread is subjected to mechanical and thermal stresses resulting in severe thread deformations. These deformations cause structural and mechanical damage to  the thread and the fibres. The loss in thread strength is a function of the magnitude of these stresses and is, therefore, an indicator of its sewing performance. The percentage reduction in the tensile strength is calculated as:


Tensile Strength of Parent Thread – Tensile Strength of Seam Thread ´ 100


Tensile Strength of Parent Thread


The tensile tests normally give 4-8% reduction in strength, and significant reduction in the modulus of the sewn thread


Seam pucker


Puckering is a disruption in the original surface area of a sewn fabric and gives a swelling and wrinkled effect along the line of the seam in an otherwise smooth fabric. Some of the main causes of seam pucker are:


Inherent characteristics of fabric: In case of woven fabric with higher number of ends and picks per unit length, when the needle and thread penetrate into the fabric, the fabric yams are forced to move in order to accommodate the thread. The length of these yarns adjacent to stitch length changes in relation to adjacent yarns and cause pucker. These disturbed yarns have a tendency to reoccupy their original position but are prevented by the thread. This property is referred to as “memory” and the extent to which they are able a) recover is a measure of tendency to pucker.

  • Stitch type and scam construction: The type of stitch Used affects role of threads in seam puckering. A chain-stitch puckers more than a lockstitch.
  • Choice of components: Fabrics with dissimilar shrinkage characteristics will ca use seam pucker after washing or dry-cleaning. Bias tapes. Piping’s. Facing,.Zippers must be chosen and attached with care to minimise pucker.
  • Improper movement of fabric: It can be due to any of the following reasons: (i) sewing machine resulting in feeding pucker, and (ii) operators mishandling due to overfeeding, pulling or repeated stopping and starting of machines i.e. differential fabric stretch at the time of feeding the fabric.
  • Thread tension: Thread tension particularly for synthetic threads should be lower as compared to cotton threads; as synthetic threads have higher extension and  when the load/tension is removed they tend to return to their original length, thus causing puckering.
  • Shrinkage: (i) Thread shrinkage – Cotton threads shrink in length and increase in diameter when wet these distortions cause pucker; (ii) Fabric shrinkage – Fabrics should be tested by subjecting to several washes, as some fabric shrink progressively. Even a 2% difference in shrinkage can cause puckering.
  • In the analysis of mechanism of seam pucker, the cause of seam pucker has been related to the compressive forces on the fabrics generated during sewing by thread tension and interaction between the thread, fabric and feed mechanism. Seam puckering depends on sewing thread properties, stitch length type, thread tension, sewing speed, presser foot pressure, needle size and frictional properties of fabric and its constituent yams. The seam pucker can be calculated by finding thickness strain as follows:

Thickness Strain (%) = ts  – 2t ´100 2t


Where ts is seam thickness, and t is fabric thickness.


On analysing the pucker behaviour of various seamed fabrics, it is reported that seam pucker mainly depends on the compressional behaviour of the fabrics. In fabrics with sufficient compression, other mechanical properties do not seem to have significant role in causing puckering. However, in fabrics with moderate and poor compression, the extent of puckering is dependent on other mechanical properties and fabric cover especially in the weft direction. Further, threads of different tensile modulus are also expected to influence the talent of puckering.


Seam slippage


When garment seams are subjected to increasing transverse stress, a point is reached when the thread of the fabric which lie parallel to the seam in the ‘seam allowance’ are displaced bodily, and the seam opens slightly and presents an unacceptable appearance. Such a seam has ‘failed’ even though no rupture has occurred. In an examination of seams, attentio  has to be directed to two different values of stress, namely that at which the seam opens or slips to an unacceptable extent, and that at which it finally ruptures. The opening load is mainly dependent on stitch rate, weave structure and width of seam allo wance. Seam slippage at the stitching line may be caused by separation of the fabric components of the seams due to seam grin, extensible stitch structure or gaping due to yam slippage. Fabric variables, which may lead to seam slippage, include few warps/wefts interlacing’s per unit area, allowing yams to move over each other under load. This effect may be exacerbated by loose weave constructions or fabrics constructed from yams with a smooth surface. Increasing the width of the seam allowance does not always reduce seam slippage. Other stitch variables which may need to be considered includes stitch type, stitch length, thread tension the number of rows of stitching and the distance between the rows of stitching where multiple rows are used. Some of the causes of seam slippage are:

  • Seam slippage is caused by the yams in the fabric pulling out from the seam under strain and so the more firmly they are held the less likelihood of their slipping out.
  • Theoretically, if every yarn in the fabric is held into the seam by a stitch, there would be no seam slippage, but it is not possible to have such a high stitch density, so a compromise has to be reached, where the slippage is reduced without causing the yam damage in the fabric. Also tension setting on the machine should be kept as high as possible without causing recovery pucker or excessive thread breakdown.
  • Seam slippage is most common in plain weave fabrics or those woven from slippery yams, though it is not confined to these.
  •  In a given fabric, seam slippage will be higher in plain seam than lapped or bound seam.
  •  On fabrics which are susceptible to slippage, any displacement of the weave will aggravate the problem and so it is important to use as small needle as possible consistent with the thread size and sewing operation.
  •  Another slippage aspect related to sewing thread and fabric is that of seam locking. Seam locking is the ability of the thread to stay put in the fabric over ithas been sewn, and this is a property which varies between thread types. Without seam locking one gets a situation where if the fabric is cut at right angles to the seam the thread runs back. The worst offenders in the case are the threads with smooth surface like monofilaments and untextured continuous filaments. Spun threads and continuous textured filaments have a rougher surface which helps them to lock into the fabric to a far greater extent.

Needle cutting


Needle cutting or yarn severance in the fabric is objectionable because it may result in reduced seam strength or poor appearance or both due to frayed yarns. To find the needle cutting index. Sewing threads are removed from specimens- The count of the number of fabric yarns and the count of the number of severed and fused fabric yarns in the direction nearly perpendicular to the direction of sewing are used.

Needle cutting or yarn severance occurs due to stiffness of the yarns in fabric and lack of their mobility. Instead of moving and/or deforming when the needle penetrates the fabric structure, the yarns remain taut and are ruptured or burned. Also some damage may occur due to excessive heat generated due to friction of the sewing needle and the fabric.


Seam appearance


The overall seam performance could be best judged by examining surface look of the seam line. Although the method is quite subjective and needs expertise to predict the performance, it can however be examined under microscope to identify various aspects of seam appearance. The microscopic study helps in examining seam and surface damage.


Inspection of garments involves much more than merely just looking-at the garment.


We are professional inspectors and should find things that consumers may not notice.

As the individuals responsible for auditing merchandise, we must be aware and pass on to our suppliers our standards and requirements.


Inspection Procedure

  1. Choose a method that is comfortable but one that covers the complete product.
  2. The inside as well as the outside of each garment is to be thoroughly inspected.
  3. Note minor infractions/defects as well as major defects. If enough minor defects are noted, it may be necessary to fail a lot.
  4. Garments should have all belts removed and ties untied before being inspected.

Step by step shirt inspection

  1. Product presentation/packing
  2. Fabric Defects/Front
  3. Seams and stitching
  4. Closures/Buttons/Trim
  5. Fabric Defects/Back
  6. Collar
  7. Collar Stand
  8. Sleeves and Cuffs
  9. Balance, Asymmetrical, Matching
  10. Inside-Garment fully turned.





Major Points of Inspection

  1. Presentation of Pressing/Folding
  2. Shirt should be packed in a correct polybag size.
  3. Check presentation of collar, butterfly and band.
  4. Check collar spread.
  5. Check the packaging method and material are conforming to the requirements. Such as O.C.R. tickets, hang tags, or special catalog packaging.



Major Points of Inspection

  1. Check the position of button
  2. Any puckering at placket
  3. Any uneven closure at front placket
  4. Improper pocket position
  5. Presentation of Pocket
  6. Check width of pocket facing
  7. Any incorrect collar stand
  8. Too small or too large of a gap
  9. Any fabric defect at body or sleeve




Major Points of Inspection

  1. Any eased seam at neckline
  2. Any broken stitches at collar fall and stand
  3. Any open seam at shoulder seam. Check the stitching whether it is too loose or too short.
  4. Any open seam at armhole. Check the stitching whether it is too loose or too light.
  5. Any open seam at side seam and under arm seam. Also check the stitching whether it is too loose or too tight.

CLOSURES/BUTTONS/TRIM Major Points of Inspection


  1. Any button not sewn secure; will they pull off
  2. Defective buttonhole.
  3. Buttonhole poorly cut open. Does button hang on fabric threads which will cause fabric defect if pulled.
  4. Any defective button (Broken, Cracked)




Major Points of Inspection

  1. Any open seam at yoke
  2. Any puckering or loose stitching, at back neck
  3. Any open seam at back neck
  4. Check whether the collar fall can fully cover collar stand
  5. Yoke width uneven (left to right side)



Major Points of Inspection

  1. Excessive tightness or fullness of collar. Collar should lay smooth and flat when turned down.
  2. Any wavy or uneven top stitching
  3. Any broken stitches or skip stitches
  4. Boading on outside collar
  5. Uneven edge stitching at collar stand,
  6. Damage at collar point (e.g. hole)
  7. Stitch count more or less than the specified tolerance



Major Points of Inspection


  • Broken stitches at collar stand!
  • Stitch count more or less than the specified tolerance
  • Excessive tightness of fullness of collar stand. Collar stand should lay smooth and flat.


  • Major – Points of Inspection
  • Any uneven sleeve length
  • Any twisted sleeves
  • Insert the wrong size of sleeve into the body
  • Too light or too loose of stitching at underarm seam
  • Any uneven length or twisting at sleeve placket
  • Missed tacking at sleeve placket
  • Any open seam at cuff
  • Any mis-alignment of button and buttonhole at cuff
  • Missed tacking at cuff while sewing to sleeve
  • Wrong sleeve placket size



Major Points of Inspection

  • Asymmetrical collar point
  • Shoulder seams adjoining to collar, does it cause collar distortion
  • Variance in collar stand
  • Missed tacking at collar stand when attaching collar to the body
  • Variance in collar nose after sewing g
  • Asymmetrical collar



Major Points of Inspection

  1. Any skip stitches in overlocking
  2. Any defects in overlocking
  3. Untrimmed threads
  4. Mis-place of button position
  5. Any skip stitches at placket
  6. Any raw edges or open seam at hem

5.Quality in Pressing and Packing

  1. Burned or scorched garments.
  2. Water spots/stains.
  3. Broken zippers, buttons etc.
  4. Crease not correctly formed.
  5. Shrinkage due to heat & moisture


you can view video on Apparel quality analysis – common defects in spreading, cutting, bundling, sewing, pressing and finishing, quality control in apparel production


  1. Solinger Jacob, “Apparel Manufacturing Hand Book – Analysis, Principles and Practice”,Columbia Boblin Media Corp., 1988.
  2. David J.Tyler, “Materials Management in Clothing Production”, 2000.
  3. William K.Hodson, “Maynord’s Industrial Engineering Handbook”, IV edition, McGraw Hill Inc., New York, 2010.
  4. Herold Carr and Barbara Lathem, “ The Technology of Clothing Manufacturing”, II nd Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 1988.
  1. Prodip V.Mehta, “An Introduction of Quality Control for the Apparel Industry”. ASQC quality Press, Marcel Dekker Inc., Newyork, 1992.
  2. Managing Quality In Apparel Industry, S.K.Bhrdwaj & Pradip V Mehta. Quality is Free,Philip Crosby.
  3. V.RameshBabu “ Industrial Engineering in Apparel Production” Wood Head publishing India Ltd., ISBN 13:978-93-80308-17-3, 2012.