V. Meena

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Learning Objective


To understand values that influences human behaviour.




In our daily life values are motivating factors that influence our behaviour. Values grow out of human interests, desires and experiences. Values are the products of the interaction between an individual and some object or situation in its environment. Values are generally regarded as the moral standards of human behaviours in the society.


The meaning of value resembles to “able” and “worth” which is associated with situation, which has the power to satisfy oneself, is known as value. Differences in thoughts lead to the differences in individual behaviour. Values is derived from Latin word ‘Valerie’ – strong and vigorous. According to Oxford dictionary ‘value’ means ‘worth’. Values guide individual’s physical and mental health as well as promote social welfare. They serve as guiding principles of life. They are part of the philosophy of a nation and of its educational system.


Parker defines values as “Values belong wholly to the inner world of the mind. The satisfaction of the desire is the real value; the thing that serves is only an instrument. A value is always an experience, never a thing of an object”.


According to Nickell and Dorsey, “Values are motivating factors in human behaviour. They provide a basis for judgement, discrimination and analysis and it is these qualities that make intelligence choices possible between alternatives”.


Origin and Development of Values


Values originate from human desires and interest. Indirection of individual’s environment and situations originate values. It is human being who originates values and protects it. Values are the motivational factor for any particular work. Attitude of an individual is based on values. The attitude directs the behavioural pattern of an individual. Biological, psychologically and social elements in family members have internal values which control the human behaviour like protection, security, efficiency, respect, mental and physical health etc., Every culture has different values and these values are taught to a child from childhood. Likewise an adult has cultural values, of respecting elders, having love and affection for friends and relatives, which abounds in all the families.

Characteristics of Values:


The characteristics of values are as follows:


1.      Values are important to an individual. Decision-making is based on values. If an individual stresses on the values will become the basis for a decision.

2.      Values are directive in nature. They motivate an individual to proceed in a particular direction.

3.      Creative nature of values develops personality. They have in our behavioural attitude and based on values certain attitude develops in an individual.

4.      Values have patience, fulfill desires and provide satisfaction.

5.      The intensity of values is different for every individual. Human values affect an individual as well as the society.

6.      Family relations and faith develops on the basis of values.

7.      Values are based on facts values change with place and circumstances. Role of working women will be different at her work place and so will be her values. But as a homemaker her values and roles differ.

8.      Value is a thing, though or an idea which originates goals. It directs a person to choose between different alternatives.

9.      Values are reflective of our culture. Indian culture teaches to respect elders, to be polite to others, to sacrifice of the welfare of other human kind and entertain our guests properly. These values will be developed in every Indian.


Importance of Values:


Our values are important because they help us to grow and develop. The purpose is the satisfaction of our individual or collective (organisational) needs. Human values have been a central concept in the social sciences since their inception. Human values play a vital role in the society; they are the basis of human beings for leading a better life. It is believed that all holy books of all religions contain the values of good life. Values are principles that allow us to guide our behavior to fulfill ourselves as individuals. However, the first information not only gains in earlier periods that begin and end in the period to adolescence but also continues personality. From now on, there can be changes on these values, but basic values have been developed.


Changing child’s wrong behaviour is more difficult than trying to develop a new behaviour. It is critical to develop the child’s personality in a planned and systematic process in order to prevent the wrong development of values education. There are different factors which affect human values in the life of an individual and the society. Value education starts from families and it is continuous at schools with the help of educators. Because of this, families, teachers and educational programs are crucial to values education.


Families are the first source of information so they should be careful about their behaviours and attitudes as children see them as a model. Co-operation within families and teachers is very important for the thing that affects the children most is what the teacher does in the classroom. In this period by the help of educational activities like seminars, conferences; families can take an active part in organizing these programs. So that, there can be an effective harmony among families, educators and educational programs. It may be mentioned that value is a theory about “what things in the world are good, desirable, and important.” (S.C. Sinha, 1990).

    Values in Nature:


Nature is examined as a carrier of values. Despite problems of subjectivity and objectivity in value assignments, values are actualized in human relationships with nature. Ten areas of values associated with nature are recognized: (1) economic value, (2) life support value, (3) recreational value, (4) scientific value, (5) aesthetic value, (6) life value, (7)   diversity and unity values, (8) stability and spontaneity values, (9) dialectical value, and (10)   sacramental value.


Types of Values


Parker has divided values in two classes.


1.      Internal Value

2.      External Value


Internal Values: Natural qualities are present in human beings are known as internal values. Examples are interest, capacity, ability, skill etc.

External Values: These values are acquired by an individual through efforts. They are the result of external pressures from the environment. Social and economic values are good examples of external values. Culture and environment plays an important role in the development of external values.


According to Premlata Mullick (2003), Values are classified with certain examples are as:

  • Moral Value – Honesty, punctuality, integrity, faithfulness, sincerity.
  • Aesthetic Value – Sensitivity to the artistic qualities of a portrait or the beauty of scenery.
  • Instrumental Value – Interest in studies and skill in handicrafts as they are instruments for success and happiness.
  • Intrinsic Value – Love affection, comfort and beauty.
  • Ethical Value – ethics is the science of character, habits of activity or behaviour of human beings.
  • According to Super values are categorised into two:
  • Intrinsic Values – Altruism, Creativity, Independence, Intellectual, Aesthetic, Achievement and management.
  • Extrinsic   Values    –    Way   of   life,   Security,   Prestige,   Economic    return,   Association, Surroundings and Variety.

Lindesy has concised values are:

  • Theoretical value: To accept truth as an intellectual truth and to accept it. Interest in further research to know the facts like scientific research, philosophical thinking etc.,
  • Economic value: Taking interest in economically productive work is economic value. Going out for a job, save money, interior decoration, increase wealth like house, jewels, car etc., Aesthetic value: To take interest in beauty and artistic activities like writing poems, drawing, painting, sculpture, etc.,
  • Social value: Value of providing services to others, taking active part in the welfare of the weaker section, social service, helping orphanage, working for the upliftment of the poor. Political value: Leadership quality will lead to political value. Dominance over others and interest in administrative power has political value like to become a leader work with a political party.
  • Religious value: Taking keen interest in god and religious activities, listening to religious speeches are called religious value.

All these values direct a person’s thinking and develop his personality. Formation of an attitude is affected by values. Attitude towards something will channelize the behavioural pattern of an individual.


Urban has classified values into three groups.

Instrumental values – Bodily values, economic values and entertainment values.

Partly instrumental and intrinsic – Social values and character values.

Intrinsic values – Aesthetic values, Intellectual values and Religious values. According to Dewitt H. Parter in his book ‘Human Values’ classified as


1.      Facilities and comforts

2.      Health

3.      Ambition

4.      Love

5.      Desire for knowledge

6.      Technological satisfaction

7.      Art

8.      Religion


Gandhian Value’s:


Mahatma Gandhi was a synthetic and comprehensive personality. Gandhi, in his life and writings, re-asserted the value, efficacy and significance of the moral and spiritual norms and percepts. Mahatma Gandhi, who lived during the second half and the first half of nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, was a visionary and the architect of India’s freedom and progress. He inculcated great ideals for economic, social and spiritual development for the human race. He inculcated great ideals for economic, social and spiritual development for the human race. He gave the world three great revolutionary concepts, Sarvodaya (welfare of all), Satyagraha (truth force) and Shanti Sena (peace brigade). Gandhi identified eleven values, which he called ashram vows, to be practiced individually, socially and universally. These values were: Truth, Non-violence, Non seating, Non-possession, Celibacy, control of palate, fearlessness, bread labour, swadeshi, removal of untouchability and religious equality. Gandhi had a passion for Nature cure. Truth was the most cherished principle of Gandhi. Non-violence is one of the supreme values in which man should have faith. These values were, simplicity, merging with the common man, non-violence and prayer.


Role of family and society in inculcating values:

  • The family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.
  • Cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop love and affection among family members.
  • It will help younger generation of the family to imbibe human values.
  • Children identify themselves with their parents, elders and adopt them as their personal role models for imitation.
  • Customs and Traditions followed and taught by the family leads a disciplined and organized life.

Role of educational institutions in inculcating values:


In school, children are members of a small society that exerts a tremendous influence on their moral development. Teachers as role model to students in school, they play a major role in inculcating their ethical behaviour. Rules and regulations, of the educational institutions infuse the value education to the children in an informal way. They play a major role in developing ethical behaviour in children. General Steps are:

  • Role model: The teachers are the first role model to the children outside their family. The children learn by observing and imitate it with fellow peers.
  • Helping: The children are taught basic morals and values in school. They should be taught by emphasizing the ideas through many activities, stories and tales, which will encourage them to engage in more helping behaviours.
  • Appreciation: The teacher should appreciate the children for developing pro-social behaviour, especially for any specific action they have done to help others.
  • Application of values in reality:
  • It can easily be said that ethics of life is the general application of the five human values viz., Truth, Righteousness, Peace and Love and Non-Violence in actuality.

Following values are most important which has to be followed in every one’s life:


1. Appreciation: Taking a brief moment to say, “thank you,” or acknowledging the exceptional job example restaurant server, it fills your soul with more appreciation too.

2. Belief in Others: It can be attitude; resolve, that can lift someone up when they are down. That doubt can be erased by confidence.

3. Commitment: Commitment shows loyalty and persistence as well. A commitment is a promise made and an expectation we have created.

   4.Compassion: No doubt we have different skin colours, religious preferences and political points-of-view, but at the end of the day, we still need to take care of one another.

5. Cooperation: Even the most complex tasks and assignments can be made simpler when we focus on the solutions – together.

6.Effort: When the effort is more then automatically value plays major role.

7. Forgiveness: When you forgive, you are better able to let go of the past and keep moving forward with your life.

8.Friendship: Friends support us and they provide an unfiltered view of our actions when asked. Friends sustain us through difficult periods and join us for the events we celebrate.

9.Gratitude: It is with a grateful heart that helps me to see so much abundance in my life. My value of gratitude reminds me that what I have today can be taken away tomorrow.

10.Honesty: When we are honest, we do the work with full satisfaction.

11.Listening: As a parent, one of the best gifts to the children is to listen; to really listen to what they are saying and to be fully present in the moment with them.

12. Patience: Patience is a value which can also improve productivity because it creates a better state of mind, a clearer state of mind, for better decision making.

13.Unity: There is indeed strength in numbers. Working together to solve a common problem ensures a greater chance of success. Making the effort to bring people together will always be more effective than finding ways to pull people apart.


To achieve family values the following interest assist in development.


Factors contributing value changes:


Truthfulness: This quality can be defined as being honest. Honesty implies being frank, direct, open or even straight.


Respect: Respect is an acknowledgement of the inherent worth and innate rights of the individual and collectivity.


Tolerance and Cooperation: Tolerance involves mutual understanding resulting from mutual respect while cooperation involves mutually beneficial relations.


Respect for human life and Dignity of persons: Human life has always been sacred or sacrosanct. Life has always been important and the dignity of persons has been pursued because the origin of life has been linked with “gods” or “deities”.


Values of the Present:   Nowadays, civilization came a lot of changes both positively and negatively.


Assessment of value changes among youth in modern times:


Adolescence stage is a transforming stage from childhood to adulthood. Youths are major determinants of the level of development in any society. Moral values are taught to enhance development and promote good moral education and health in individuals. In this world, development continues to take place in society which rapidly moves with latest development trends and it is very important for youths to assess value changes from their childhood in this modern times. Society has observed a fall in moral standards and an increased interest in pleasure and enjoyment as opposed to more serious things. Modern societies are experiencing the wave of corruption driven by the “get rich quick syndrome”. Moral values of the past can still be practiced by youths in present day societies and with this they (youths) can determine the type of change that occurs in society.




Human values play a very leading role in society. It is true that the individual is the chief concern, but as long as individuals exist in society, it may be firmly said that the modern society will never outgrow its existence. The origin and development of values, characteristics of values, significance of values, Role of family and society in inculcating values and Role of educational institutions in inculcating values, Gender influences values, age influences values, application of values in reality were discussed.


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