S. Revathy

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  • Understand the role of motivation in determining employee performance
  • Understand the importance of motivation
  • Application of motivation theories to analyze performance problems



Motivation is the label we give to processes that energize and direct behavior toward particular goals. Motivation affects the strength of behaviors, persistence of behaviors, and direction of behavior. Motivation changes over time as conditions inside the body and in the external environment change. Motivation is very closely linked to reinforcement. A high level of motivation for something will make it easy to use it as a reinforce. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role   or   subject,  or     to  make   an    effort   to   attain  a  goal.


Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way


Definition of motivation


The term ‘motivation’ has been derived from the word ‘motive’. Motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that activates and directs our behaviour. It makes us move to act. It is always internal to us and is externalized via our behaviour. Motivation is one’s willingness to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his/her goal. According to Fred Luthans motivation is a “process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”. Stephen P. Robbins states “motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of efforts toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort ability to satisfy some individual need”.


Importance of motivation


1.The motivated employees are more productive and quality- conscious than apathetic ones.

2. Motivation as a pervasive concept affects and is also affected by a host of factors in the organization.

3. Organizational effectiveness becomes, to some ability to motivate its employees. Hence, an managers how to motivate their employees. extent, the question of management’s appreciation of motivation helps the

4.Motivation helps organizations to have employees with required capability and willingness to use the advanced complex technology to achieve the organizational goal.

5. With the realization that organizations will run in more complex milieu in future, an increasing attention has been given to develop employees as future resources. Motivation makes the managers to draw upon them as and when organizations grow and develop.


Theories of Motivation


Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs Theory: The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory proposed that people have five different sets of needs: physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and needs for self-actualization (Ormrod, 2008). Abraham Maslow’s theory has a central feature of humanism and the basic need of Maslow’s Theory is the basis for motivation.


Maslow’s theory found obvious applications in business settings. Understanding what people need gives us clues to understanding them. The hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employees may have at any given point and explains different reactions they may have to similar treatment. An employee who is trying to satisfy esteem needs may feel gratified when her supervisor praises an accomplishment. However, another employee who is trying to satisfy social needs may resent being praised by upper management in front of peers if the praise sets the individual apart from the rest of the group. Finally, self-actualization needs may be satisfied by the provision of development and growth opportunities on or off the job, as well as by work that is interesting and challenging. By making the effort to satisfy the different needs of each employee, organizations may ensure a highly motivated workforce.


Achievement-Motivation Theory: Achievement-Motivation Theory was developed by Atkinson, McClelland, and Veroff and focuses on aspects of personality characteristics and proposes three forms of motivation or needs in work situations (McEwen, 2007). The three forms of motivation of the Achievement-Motivation Theory are achievement, power, and affiliation. The Achievement-Motivation Theory’s central idea deals with the managerial success and motivation of a person.


Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation and Hygiene Factor: According to Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory, some factors can lead to learning and satisfaction, while others do not in spite of resulting in dissatisfaction if they are absent altogether (What is Motivation, n.d.). Herzberg was primarily concerned with the people’s well-being at work. Underpinning his theories and academic teachings, he was basically attempting to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace (BusinessBalls.com, 2010). According to BusinessBalls.com (2010), examples of Herzberg’s ‘hygiene’ needs (or maintenance factors) in the workplace are: Policy, relationship with supervisor, work conditions,salary, company car, status, security relationship with subordinates, personal life.


Herzberg’s research identified that true motivators were other completely different factors, notably: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement (BusinessBalls.com, 2010). Herzberg’s underlying concept was to increase motivation at work.


Approaches to motivation


Motivation is the label we give to processes that energize (active) and direct behavior toward particular goals. Motivation affects the strength of behaviours, persistence of behavior and direction of behavior (direction = choosing which behavior to make)Motivation changes over time as conditions inside the body and in the external environment change, With these changes, behavior changes.


Motivation is very closely linked to reinforcement. A high level of motivation for something (food, social power, cigarettes, etc.) will make it easy to use it as a reinforcer. For example, a hungry pigeon will work very hard to get a bite of food, and smokers will expend a lot of effort to get cigarettes). This feature of motivation is the basis of Premack’s (1959, 1965) and Allison and Timberlake’s (1974) models of reinforcement.


Motivation determines what will work as reinforcement. The more attractive something appears (motivation), the more likely someone will do something to get some (reinforcement). In fact, some psychologists claim that the only thing motivation does is to establish the conditions for reinforcement.


Different Approaches to Motivation


Traditional Approach


Frederick W. Taylor’s work was best represented by the traditional approach. His ideas were centered around the thought that everyone was primarily motivated by economic gain. He also believed that managers knew more about the jobs being performed than the who performed these jobs did.


Human Relations Approach


Unlike the traditional approach the human relations approach is focused on the social environment of a company. It focuses on the role of the social processes and relationships. The human relations approach understands that employees have strong social needs and that economic gain can’t always fill that gap. This approach is more concerned with the employees well being at work than the financial compensation the employees get for working.


Human Resource Approach


The human relations approach tells us that employees want to contribute and make real contributions to something. Human religionists will tell you that the illusion of contribution and participation is enough to motivate employees. However, some employees need more than just an illusion of contribution and participation, but instead need to be actively involved in decision making and feel like they truly are contributing to the group. Managers need to figure out how to use all their human resources and encourage employees to participate. A way that managers can also make employees feel more involved is to create work teams that collaborate and make decisions.


Elements of motivation


Educators can apply motivational theory to actively engage students in the learning process. Motivation is the impetus or force that drives human behavior. different theories and models of motivation describes how motivations directly and indirectly influence thoughts and actions. Many psychologists and behavior analyst use a three – part model, which closely examines motivation in terms of direction, intensity and persistence


Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors


Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence motivation. Intrinsic factors are the internal forces that motivate or compel an individual, and extrinsic factors are the external forces. For instance, employers use extrinsic factors, such as bonuses or promotions, to motivate employees to perform well on the job. At the same time, the individual may also be motivated by intrinsic factors, such as an inner drive to succeed. Intrinsic factors include physical, mental, emotional and spiritual needs and desires.




Direction is simply the goal that spurs the individual to action. A goal is actively chosen among a set of alternatives, whether the individual realizes it or not. The goal is determined by different influences, including extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which may contradict each other. For instance, an individual may have a natural inclination for introspection, but be motivated towards a highly social lifestyle for career advancement or social status.




Intensity is the strength of the response in the chosen direction. Typically, there’s a close relationship between intensity and the expectation of a desired outcome. Intensity, or motivational force, depends on the individual’s perception of the likelihood that effort will yield a certain result. This is true whether or not perception is realistic. For instance, if an individual believes a raise is imminent it can be a motivator to pursue the goal with vigor, perhaps by staying late at work and increasing output.




Persistence is the duration with which a person expends energy and effort towards the direction or goal. The sustenance of behavior is influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The factors that initially energized or initiated behavior may not necessarily be the same factors that sustain behavior and provide for persistence. For example, a student may be initially motivated to earn good grades in school to receive an allowance at home. Over time, extrinsic motivation may be supplemented or replaced by intrinsic motivation if the student discovers that learning is fun and personally satisfying




1. Facilitates Administration: An efficient and sound organization make easy for the management to relate the flow of resource continually to the overall objectives. A sound organization helps in providing appropriate platform where management can performs the functions of   planning,  direction,   coordination,  motivation    and     control.


2.Facilitates Growth and Diversification: A sound organization helps in the growth and diversification of activities. The growth is facilitated by clear division of work, proper delegation of authority etc. In short, it helps in the organizational elaboration. In case of reasonable expansion of organization, the functional types get replaced by a more flexible decentralized organization.


3.Permits optimum use of Resources: The optimum use of technical and human resources gets facilitated in sound and efficient organization. The organization can have the facilities of latest technological developments and improvements. It also facilitates optimum use of human resources through specialization. The people in the organization get appropriately trained and get promotion opportunities. A sound organization provides all the desired potential and strength to the  company  to meet the   future  challenges.


4.Stimulate Creativity: The specialization in the organization helps individuals in getting well defined duties, clear lines of authority and responsibility. It encourages the creativity of the people. The sound organisational structure enables mangers to concentrate on important issues where   their  talent can  be  exploited to the   maximum.


5.Encourages  Humanistic  Approach:  A  sound  organisation  helps     in  adopting  efficient methods of selection, training, remuneration and promotion for employees. It makes people work in a team and not like machines or robots. Organisation helps in providing factors like job rotation, job enlargement and enrichment to its employees. A sound organisation provides higher job satisfaction to its employees through proper delegation and decentralization, favorable working environment and democratic and participative leadership. It enhances the mode of communication and interaction among different levels of the management.




Classical Organization Theory:


The classical writers viewed organisation as a machine and human beings as components of that machine. They were of the view that efficiency of the organisation can be increased by making human beings efficient. Their emphasis was on specialisation and co-ordination of activities. Most of the writers gave emphasis on efficiency at the top level and few at lower levels of organisation. That is why this theory has given streams; scientific management and administrative management. The scientific management group was mainly concerned with the tasks to be performed at operative levels.


Henry Fayol studied for the first time the principles and functions of management. Some authors like Gullick, Oliver Sheldon, Urwick viewed the problem where identification of activities is necessary for achieving organisation goals. Grouping or departmentation was also considered essential for making the functions effective. Since this theory revolves around structure it is also called ‘structural theory of organisation.”


Pillars of Organisation Theory:


According to classical writers, the organisation theory is built around four key pillars division of work, scalar and functional processes, structure and span of control.


(i) Division of Labour:


Division of labour implies that work must be divided to obtain specialisation with a view to improve the performance of workers. The classical theory rests on the assumption that more a particular job is broken into its simplest component parts, the more specialised a worker can become in carrying out his part of the job.


(ii) Scalar and Functional Process:


The scalar process refers to the growth of chain of command, delegation of authority, unity of command and obligation to report. It is called scalar process because it provides a scale or grading of duties according to the degree of authority and responsibility.


(iii) Structure:


It is the framework of formal relationships among various tasks, activities and people in the organization. The basic structural element in the classical theory is position.


(iv) Span of Control:


The span of control means the number of subordinates a manager can control. Classical thinkers specified numbers at different levels which can be effectively supervised by a superior.


2. Neo-Classical Organisation Theory:


The classical theory of organisation focused main attention on physiological and mechanical variables of organisational functioning. The testing of these variables did not show positive results..


New-classical approach is contained in two points:


(i)   Organisational situation should be viewed in social, economic and technical terms, and

(ii)     The  social  process  of  group  behaviour  can  be  understood  in  terms  of  clinical  method analogous to the doctor’s diagnosis of human organism.


This theory views formal and informal forms of organisation as important. The behavioural approach followed in this theory is the other contribution of new-classical thinkers. The pillars of classical theory viz. division of work, departmentation, co-ordination and human behaviour were taken as given but these postulates were regarded as modified by people acting independently or within the context of the informal organisation.


3. Modern Organisation Theory:


Modern organisation theory is of recent origin, having developed in early 1960’s. This theory has tried to overcome the drawbacks of earlier theories. In the words of W.G. Scott, ‘The distinctive qualities of modern organisation theory are its conceptual analytical base, its reliance on empirical research data and, above all, its integrating nature. These qualities are framed in a philosophy which accepts the premise that the only meaningful way to study organisation is to study it as a system.” This theory may be understood in two approaches: systems approach and contingency approach.


Systems Approach:


This approach studies the organisation in its totality. The mutually dependent variables are properly analysed. Both internal and external variables are studied in analysing the nature of organisation.


Contingency Approach:


Contingency approach suggests an organisational design which suits a particular unit. A structure will be suitable only if it is tailor made for an enterprise.


The influence of both internal and external factors should be considered while framing a suitable organisational structure. This approach suggests that needs, requirements, situations of a particular concern should be considered while designing an organisational structure.

Administration theory


The 14 principles that capture the essence of the administrative theory could be summarized as follows:


Division of work: Division of work or specialization gives higher productivity because one can work at activities in which one is comparatively highly skilled.


Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders. An organisational member has responsibility to accomplish the organizational objectives of his position. Appropriate sanctions are required to encourage good and   to  discourage  poor  performance.


Discipline: There must be respect for and obedience to the rules and objectives of the organisation.


Unity of command: To reduce confusion and conflicts each member should receive orders from and be responsible to only one superior.


Unity of direction: An organistion is effective when members work together toward the   same   objectives.


Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one employee or group of employees should not prevail over that of the organisation.


Remuneration  of  personnel  :Pay  should  be  fair  and  should  reward  good performance,decentralization.


Centralisation: A  good  balance  should  be  found  between  centralisation  and decentralization.

Scalar chain: There is scalar chain or hierarchy dictated by the principle of unity of command linking all members of the organisation from the top to the bottom.


Order :There is a place for everything and everyone which ought to be so occupied.


Equity:Justice, largely based on predetermined conventions, should prevail in the organisation.


Stability of tenure of personnel: Time is required for an employee to get used to new work and succeed   in     doing       it     well.

     Initiative: The freedom to think out and execute plans at all levels.




Six  Key  Elements  in   Organizational Design


Organizational design is engaged when managers develop or change an organization’s structure. Organizational Design is a process that involves decisions about the following six key elements:


I. Work    Specialization


Describes the degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. The main idea of this organizational design is that an entire job is not done by one individual. It is broken down into steps, and a different person completes each step. Individual employees specialize in doing    part    of an   activity  rather    than     the   entire  activity.




It is the basis by which jobs are grouped together. For instance every organization has its own specific  way of classifying  and grouping work activities.


There are five common forms of departmentalization:


1.Functional Departmentalization. it groups jobs by functions performed. It can be used in all kinds of organizations; it depends on the goals each of them wants to achieve.


2. Product Departmentalization. It groups jobs by product line. Each manager is responsible of an area within the organization depending of his/her specialization


3.  Geographical Departmentalization. It groups jobs on the basis of territory or geography.


4. Process Departmentalization. It groups on the basis of product or customer flow.


5.  Customer Departmentalization. It groups jobs on the basis of common customers


III.   Chain  of   command


It is defined as a continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom. There are three important concepts attached to this theory:

  • Authority: Refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it.
  • Responsibility: The obligation to perform any assigned duties.
  •  Unity of command: The management principle that each person should report to only one manager.

IV.   Span  of   Control


It is important to a large degree because it determines the number of levels and managers an organization has. Also, determines the number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage.


V. Centralization and Decentralization


Supervision plays an important role in the management set up. Supervisor is the person who is directly connected with rank and file or subordinates and acts as a vital link between the management and subordinate. The workers require guidance of supervisor at ever step to clear their doubts.




Supervision is an essential part of management which helps to put plans into action towards the accomplishment of gals. The role or importance of supervision of supervision in an organization is:


·         It is important to formulate plans and policies and methods of doing the work in an organization.

·         It is related with issuing orders and instructions.

·         The supervision is used to motivate workers for higher productivity and better quality.

·         It also enforces discipline among the workers.

·         It works as a liaison between management and workers.

·         It handles grievances effectively.

·         It provides proper working condition to the workers in an organization.

·         It helps to report about the performance and progress.

·         It ensures the continuity of work operation.

·         It also ensures about elimination of waste and to reduce costs.

·         It guarantees the proper functioning of the work units.

·         Effective supervision helps to secure prosperity of both employer and employees.




Lyman and Foyle (2003) believe all approaches can be categorized into the following two models: Congruency model • Seeks to identify areas of strength in performance and looks for actions that are effective in helping students learn, emphasizing these when conferencing


• Formative in approach • Results in more positive attitudes towards the supervision process.


Elements of Supervision



  •   FACILITATING: The supervisor as facilitator provides guidance that enables the student to manage their candidature
  • MENTORING: The supervisor as mentor supports the student’s development in the context of their evolving personal and career goals,
  • SPONSORING: The supervisor as sponsor assists the student to gain the necessary access to resources and opportunities for their learning and research activity.
  • REFLECTIVE PRACTICE: The supervisor as a reflective practitioner models openness to new ideas and encourages critical discussion on research practice including their own, and the supervisory process.
  • Theories on supervision: Theory X, theory Y and theory Z. While these three models take different approaches to supervision, skilled and experienced managers can combine elements of each and to apply different models to varying workplace situations.

The Hierarchy of Needs


The hierarchy of needs was proposed by Abraham Maslow to describe the personal and professional needs all humans innately strive toward. There are five levels of needs: physical, safety, social, self-esteem and self-actualization. The hierarchy helps business owners understand that employees progress through many levels of need fulfillment in the carrying out of their job roles. For some, having a job is a means of security; for others, it’s about realizing a lifelong dream.




One-to-one supervision One-to-one supervision is widely used and the supervisor is usually the supervisee’s line manager. Sessions are formally pre-arranged and take place in a confidential setting and protected place. Shared supervision Shared supervision allows teams to share responsibility for supervising individuals. Shared supervision is still conducted one-to-one but the supervisor in this case will not be the supervisee’s line manager, instead he or she will be a practitioner who has skills and experience relevant to the supervisee’s current projects or caseload and so is able to provide specifically relevant support and/or mentoring. Group supervision Group supervision is usually facilitator led via a formal, pre-arranged process that is agreed by the supervisor and supervisees. The make-up of the group depends on the goals of the supervision.


Group supervision complements, rather than substitutes, individual supervision, though it may reduce how often you need one to-one supervision. Professional supervision Professional supervision is for professionally qualified workers in social services. Professional supervision supports supervisees to maintain professional identity, knowledge and meet their post registration training and learning requirements. This is just one way of considering different kinds of supervision. For example, many people might view supervision of all staff, qualified and unqualified, as a professional activity. And one-to-one supervision is the most common form of supervision for professionally qualified workers. In some settings, such as residential care, shift working creates challenges for staff supervision and a model of shared supervision may be used where two or more managers share the supervision of individual staff. In that situation workers will receive one-to-one supervision but not always with the same supervisor.


Some organizations may offer peer supervision or there may be opportunities to consult with an external supervisor as well as the supervision provided by a line manager. There are a variety of ways of structuring group supervision as well as the model described above. In particular, group supervision may benefit workers who are themselves engaged in group work and can use the supervision space to explore some of the dynamics and challenges they encounter in their practice. Depending on your role and your specific work setting you may have experience of different forms of supervision or you may only be familiar with one approach. If you want to learn more about other models you can read more about these in the section on supervision on the Step into Leadership website or the resources listed at the end of this resource.


Importance of Communication in an Organization: Effective Communication is significant for managers in the organizations so as to perform the basic functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. … Organizing also requires effective communication with others about their job task.


The importance of communication in an organization can be summarized as follows:


1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

2.  Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions.

3.Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes.

4.Communication also helps in socializing. In today’s life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication.

5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.


An effective and efficient communication system requires managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. A manager must discover various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid those barriers. Thus, the primary responsibility of a manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.


Good communication is an essential tool in achieving productivity and maintaining strong working relationships at all levels of an organisation.

    Employers who invest time and energy into delivering clear lines of communication will rapidly build trust amongst employees, leading to increases in productivity, output and morale in general.

Poor communication in the workplace will inevitably lead to unmotivated staff that may begin to question their own confidence in their abilities and inevitably in the organisation.


Take steps to build on communication


With 40 years of recruitment experience we understand the value of good communication. Below, we’ve outlined some of the key areas where organisations can improve and enhance their communications.

  • Define goals and expectations – Managers need to deliver clear, achievable goals to both teams and individuals, outlining exactly what is required on any given project, and ensuring that all staff are aware of the objectives of the project, the department and the organisation as a whole.
  • Clearly deliver your message – Ensure your message is clear and accessible to your intended audience. To do this it is essential that you speak plainly and politely – getting your message across clearly without causing confusion or offence.
  • Choose your medium carefully – Once you’ve created your message you need to ensure it’s delivered in the best possible format. While face to face communication is by far the best way to build trust with employees, it is not always an option. Take time to decide whether information delivered in a printed copy would work better than an email or if a general memo will suffice.
  • Keep everyone involved – Ensure that lines of communication are kept open at all times. Actively seek and encourage progress reports and project updates. This is particularly important when dealing with remote staff.

Elements of communication


(1) Sender:


The person who intends to convey the message with the intention of passing information and ideas to others is known as sender or communicator.


(2) Ideas:


This is the subject matter of the communication. This may be an opinion, attitude, feelings, views, orders, or suggestions.


(3) Encoding:


Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its further passing requires use of certain symbols such as words, actions or pictures etc. Conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.


(4) Communication Channel:


The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the channel for sending the required information, ideas etc. This information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or informal.


(5) Receiver:


Receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is meant for. It is the receiver who tries to understand the message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired objectives.


(6) Decoding:


The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.


(7) Feedback:


Feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message and understood in the same sense as sender meant it.


Communication Theory


Communication theory was proposed by S. F. Scudder in the year 1980. It states that all living beings existing on the planet communicate although the way of communication is different.


Plants communicate their need to be taken care of and watered immediately through visible changes in the colour of the leaves, and the falling of leaves and flowers.


Animals communicate by sounds, several movements to indicate that they are hungry or unwell or need medical attention.


A mother would never understand that her child is hungry unless and until the child cries. Crying is again a form through which the child communicates that he is hungry and needs food. The same applies when he is injured, where he uses crying again as a tool to communicate his pain and need of urgent medical attention.


Thus the universal law of communication theory says that all living beings whether they are plants, animals, human beings communicate through sound, speech, visible changes, body movements, gestures or in the best possible way to make the others aware of their thoughts, feelings, problems, happiness or any other information.


If a child scores less marks in examinations, parents would not speak to the child for sometime-again an effort to communicate that the parents are angry over the child’s performance and he needs to buck up for his further examinations. Try to irritate a stray dog, he will surely bark on you – again an animal’s way to communicate that he is angry and should not be irritated further.


Like human beings, animals also communicate among themselves through gestures and body movements. Monkeys always carry their babies with them wherever they go, again a way through which the mother tries to communicate that their babies are safe and the mother is there to take good care of them. During the mating season of animals, communication through gestures plays a very important role in bringing them close, the same way a peacock dances to attract its partner.


Another model of communication says that communication is simply the process of transferring information from the sender to the recipient where the recipient decodes the information and acts accordingly. Large number of people also support this model of communication.


Communication can be categorized into three basic types: (1) verbalcommunication, in which you listen to a person to understand their meaning; (2) written communication, in which you read their meaning; and (3) nonverbalcommunication, in which you observe a person and infer meaning.


Communication Theory Framework: Let us examine communication and communication theory through the following viewpoints:

  • Mechanistic – The mechanistic view point says that communication is simply the transmission of information from the first party to the second party. The first party being the sender and the second party being the receiver.
  • Psychological – According to the psychological view point, communication is simply not the flow of information from the sender to the receiver but actually the thoughts, feelings of the sender which he tries to share with the recepients. It also includes the reactions, feelings of the receiver after he decodes the information.
  • Social – The social view point considers communication as a result of interaction between the sender and the receiver. It simply says that communication is directly dependent on the content of the speech. “How one communicates” is the basis of the social view point.
  • Systemic – The systemic view point says that communication is actually a new and a different message which is created when various individuals interpret it in their own way and then reinterpret it and draw their own conclusion.
  • Critical – The critical view point says that communication





  • Abbott, A.R., & Sebastian, R.J. 1981 Physical attractiveness and expectations of success. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,Crowne, D., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive. New York: Wiley
  • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen R. Covey, Simon & Schuster, 1990.
  • The One Minute Manager, Kenneth Blanchard, Ph.D., and Spencer Johnson, M.D., The Berkley Publishing Group, October 1983
  • Putting the One Minute Manager to Work, Kenneth Blanchard, Ph.D. and Robert Lorber, Ph.D., The Berkley Publishing Group, 1985


Web links


  • https://corrections.az.gov/reference-books-supervision-and-management
  • &oq=motivation+supervision+reference+books&gs_l=psy-ab.3. http://blog.readytomanage.com/top-20-best-books-on-communication-and-listening/
  • https://www.businessballs.com/leadership-skills/frederick-herzberg-motivation-theory-83/
  • https://spea.indiana.edu/doc/undergraduate/ugrd_thesis2012_mgmt_burton.pdf